ATM :: Home loan from bank or NBFC: Which one should you opt for?

Banks and NBFCs follow different guidelines when it comes to lending and, thus, home loans disbursed by them are also done on certain different parameters. Here’s all you need to know.
By: Adhil Shetty | Published: May 3, 2018 1:03 PM | Financial Express

ATM

When buying a house, we all want to get the best deal on the home loan we avail as it is probably the longest financial commitment we will make impacting our overall portfolio and expenses. However, deciding on the right financial institution to avail the loan from is a rather tricky task, given the market is competitive.

With the rise of non-banking financial corporations (NBFCs) in India, the choice has only gotten wider as customers can now choose not only among banks, but also NBFCs. But did you know that availing a home loan from a bank and an NBFC may seem similar, but work in very different ways?

Banks and NBFCs follow different guidelines when it comes to lending and, thus, home loans disbursed by them are also done on certain different parameters. Find out how these two differ when it comes to assessing an individual for a home loan and which one can you resort to for your home loan.

1. Interest Rates: MCLR vs PLR

Banks operate their housing loan interest rates based on Marginal Cost of Lending Rate (MCLR), which serves as their lending benchmark and is closely monitored by the RBI. On the other hand, loans by Housing Finance Companies (HFCs) and NBFCs are not linked to the MCLR. They are linked to the Prime Lending Rate (PLR), which is outside the ambit of the RBI. So while banks can’t lend at rates below the MCLR, PLR-linked loans do not have such restrictions.

Banks have both floating and fixed rates, of which before only floating rates felt the occasional impact of MCLR. But in February this year it was announced by the RBI that all new loans whether with floating interest rates or base rates will be linked to the MCLR.

An MCLR-linked loan clearly mentions the intervals at which its interest rate will automatically change. In a falling interest rate scenario, this allows customers to receive RBI-mandated rate cuts in a transparent, time-bound manner.

As NBFCs and HFCs are free to set their PLR, it gives them greater freedom to increase or decrease their loan rates as per their selling requirements. This sometimes suits customers and provides them more options, especially when they fail to meet the loan eligibility criteria of banks. But in many cases, for those who easily meet the criteria this may also result in inflated interest rates compared to banks.

2. Loan Eligibility via Credit Score

As paperless financial technology takes prominence, more and more lenders are depending on credit scores to determine loan eligibility. While there are upper caps set on interest rates through MCLR and PLR, the actual interest rate you pay on your loan is linked to your credit score. Leading lenders are known to offer their best rates to customers with a CIBIL score of 750 or more.

While both banks and NBFCs consider credit scores carefully, NBFCs tend to have more relaxed policies towards customers with low credit scores. However, with a very low score, both banks and NBFCs will likely charge you a higher interest rate. In some cases, banks may ask to convert the home loan into a secured loan by mortgaging some asset if the credit criteria is not met, but you still need the loan.

A customer with a low score can in fact start with a loan from an NBFC. Through timely repayment, s/he can improve his credit score. After this, once the bank’s eligibility criteria is met, the loan balance can be transferred to a bank.

To keep yourself ready, make sure to access credit reports by CIBIL or Experian. This will allow you to be ready even before you approach a lender. Since credit scores change every quarter, you can take your time to improve it before you decide to avail the loan in order to get a better rate of interest and disbursal amount.

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3. Loan Amount

The actual cost of property is never just the selling price promoted by developers and builders. During acquisition it typically goes up as other costs like stamp duty, registration, an assortment of payments towards brokerage, furnishing, repairs and more always add up. Based on where you are in India, you may have to pay between 3 and 11 per cent of the property value as registration cost alone.

Banks are allowed to fund up to 80% of a property’s value. For example, if you are buying a property worth Rs 50 lakh, you may receive a loan of Rs 40 lakh from banks excluding the registration cost and associated charges of course. The rest of the fund requirements would have to be met by you and often these last mile costs weigh heavily on the final decision to buy a property.

Although both NBFCs and banks are not allowed to fund stamp duty and registration costs, NBFCs can include these costs as part of a property’s market valuation. This allows the customer to borrow a larger amount as per his eligibility.

4. Pre-Payment, Foreclosure and Late Payment Charges

Just like other loans, home loans also have associated charges attached. Both banks and NBFCs will have charges for pre-payment and foreclosure but NBFCs tend to charge much higher. In addition, late payment charges by NBFCs may sometimes be close to 10 or 20% of your monthly EMI, giving you no respite in case you default on any payment. NBFCs also tend to have higher processing fees, although some banks may charge similar amounts.

Whoever the lender may be, make sure to calculate you future interests and factor in additional costs associated with your repayment as home loans range between 10 and 30 years and you may have to bear such high charges in future.

(The writer is CEO at Bankbazaar.com)

Source: https://bit.ly/2rhfZOE

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ATM :: Markets closed, but that need not stop you from investing!

Imagine a platform for investments where you do not need to worry about whether the market or the MF office is still open.
Rohit Ambosta | May 01, 2018 09:28 AM IST | Source: Moneycontrol.com

ATM

What are the trading timings for the stock markets in India? When can you walk into a mutual fund office and invest in mutual funds? Obviously, you can only trade when the market is functioning between 9 am and 3.30 pm. Similarly, you can only walk into a mutual fund office and execute transactions when the office is functioning, which is typically between 10 am to 5 pm. What if you want to invest in mutual fund because you just got a credit amount into your bank account at 6 pm on Friday? You will typically have to wait till Monday morning, talk to your advisor and then walk into the mutual fund office and submit your application for an equity fund along with your cheque for the amount. But, what if all these timings could really cease to matter very soon? Here is how…

Welcome to the anywhere and anytime financial market

The legendary investor Warren Buffett rightly said that to be successful you have to work hard for your money but if you really want to be wealthy then you have to make the money work hard for you. Imagine a platform for investments where you do not need to worry about whether the market or the MF office is still open. You just log into an online platform on your computer and execute the buy or sell trade. Of course, the actual execution may happen on the next day but as far as you are concerned you have done your job. You have transcended the constraints of time and place and managed to execute your financial transaction at the time and place of your choice.

This is a dual advantage for you. Firstly, you can execute the transaction at the time of your choice; that is whenever you are free. You do not really have to worry about whether the mutual fund office is open or whether the market is functioning. You just open your system, punch in the details and the order is logged into the system. Execution is then just a matter of formality. You can also execute anywhere. It is immaterial whether you are at home or office or attending a wedding. You do not even need access to a computer or laptop since these days you could download this entire platform on an App and execute all your transactions from your smart phone itself.

How to make an informed decision anytime and anywhere?

That is the logical next question. You obviously cannot talk to your advisor in the midst of the melee. Also, you do not have access to all your existing investment documents. There is a solution which the platform can offer. Imagine that the platform assists you at two levels. Your entire financial plan and the details of investments held by you are clearly documented and stored in the platform itself. That means you can access your portfolio and your plan 24X7 from any part of the world. So, your portfolio reference point is always available with you. Now the bigger challenge is getting the right advice before investing.

That is where machine intelligence comes into play. Did you know that there is a way of getting advice that is entirely free of emotional bias? That is called algorithm driven advisory. This is not some black box program throwing up esoteric solutions based on a methodology you do not understand. The algorithms are designed to help you make an informed decision. It is based on the use of big data and many years of expert research to tabulate all the investment opportunities on one side and then again use big data to mine and create a picture perfect investment-needs profile of yours. When you combine the two you have a neat solution. All that you have to do is to click a button to say OK. That is surely a lot simpler.

Monitoring and rebalancing my portfolio when required…

So you have managed to get advice at the place of your choice and invested at the time of your choice. Can you also monitor your investments at the place and time of your choice? The answer is an emphatic “Yes”. When we talk of monitoring, we not only refer to the portfolio evaluation but also whether the portfolio of investments is in tune with the original financial plan. Has any sector outperformed? Has any sector underperformed? Have valuations become too steep. The beauty of having such a big data driven platform is that it not only helps you with such analytics but also gives you the answers. What should you do if you are overinvested in a sector? Which funds can you shift out of and which funds can you shift into? How to rebalance your entire portfolio mix and then execute with the click of a button? All these can be done from the comfort of your chair!

The big question, therefore, is can this kind of a platform do everything which can be managed by human advisors? The difference could lie in the use of big data. That could be well be the future of investing!

(The writer is CIO, Angel Broking)

Source: https://bit.ly/2FDKW3W

ATM :: What should you do if your fund gets a new name and strategy?

Existing mutual fund investors would need to evaluate their schemes if they change their strategies substantially in order to ensure they are still in sync with their financial goals and asset allocation
Kayezad E. Adajania | Last Published: Tue, May 01 2018. 10 30 PM IST | LiveMint

ATM

HDFC Prudence Fund (HPF), the country’s largest equity-oriented mutual fund scheme with assets close to Rs37,000 crore, will now be known as HDFC Balanced Advantage Fund and can switch entirely between equities and debt. Until now, it could invest only 40-75% in equities. On 25 April, HDFC Asset Management Co. Ltd announced plans for many of its schemes, as part of the ongoing merger and re-categorisation exercise.

Most other fund houses, too, have announced their plans to re-categorise their schemes. If you don’t agree with your schemes’ new form, you have a chance to exit without paying an exit load. Here’s how you should decide what to do.

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Your scheme could change…
If there is no change to your scheme, you have nothing to worry about. But if your scheme is about to change, check how big or small it is. For instance, if you own a large-cap fund that is set to become a large- and mid-cap fund or a multi-cap fund, it won’t matter much. In fact, this particular move is good, said Prateek Pant, head of product & solutions at Sanctum Wealth Management. “Going ahead, it will get difficult for large-cap funds to outperform their benchmark indices. The definition of large-cap fund has narrowed down and benchmarking performances against total returns index would make things tougher for large-cap funds,” he said. Read more here.

If your scheme undergoes a big change, evaluate. For instance, SBI Treasury Advantage Fund, which will be known as SBI Banking and PSU Fund, was meant for short-term investments. Now, its strategy would be to invest in debt scrips of state-owned companies and banks. “If the risk profile of a scheme changes, look at it again. If it no longer meets your purpose, leave it,” said Vidya Bala, head-mutual fund research, Fundsindia.com.

…but do not jump the gun
Don’t blindly go by the change in your fund category. Mirae Asset Emerging Bluechip Fund (MEBF)—an erstwhile mid-cap fund—has become a large- and mid-cap fund. The name remains the same, and, what’s more, the fund remains the same too.

On the face of it, a shift from a mid-cap to a large- and mid-cap fund is a big change. But dig a little deeper and you might not want to worry about it. According to capital markets regulator Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi), a large- and mid-cap fund must invest a minimum of 35% each in large- and mid-cap stocks. As it turns out, MEBF has been increasing its exposure to large-cap companies over time; from an average of 20% in 2014 and 26% in 2015 to 38% so far this year, as per Value Research.

“We didn’t want to tamper our existing portfolios too much. So, whichever categories our funds fitted into naturally, we have moved our funds there,” said Swarup Mohanty, chief executive officer, Mirae Asset Global Investments (India) Pvt. Ltd. HPF, too, remains the same. Although a dynamic category fund can switch entirely between equity and debt, a person close to HPF said it can—and will—continue to invest 65-70% in equities like always. Of course, how the fund performs in falling markets in the face of its present equity allocation remains to be seen as the fund will now be compared to other dynamic funds. HPF refused to comment.

The tax implications
If your scheme merges with another or ceases to exist, there are no tax implications. If, however, you choose to withdraw, you may have to pay short-term capital gains tax of 15% (plus surcharge and cess) if you had bought the units in the past one year or long-term capital gains tax, otherwise.

The only respite is you don’t pay an exit load, if any, even if you withdraw within the exit load period.

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What should you do?
Each merger and re-categorisation poses a unique situation. How one investor reacts to a change could be different from another investor’s reaction. Sit with your financial adviser to understand the ramifications of your scheme changes. But here are some broad principles you should follow.

* If your scheme’s risk profile increases a little, there is no cause for alarm. For instance, a large-cap fund becoming a large- and mid-cap fund is acceptable. If your scheme’s risk profile increases a lot, take a closer look. For instance, SBI Magnum Equity Fund (a large-cap fund) is now a thematic fund SBI Magnum Equity ESG (Environment, Social, and Governance).

* Just because the fund has changed its category or name does not necessarily mean the scheme has changed. Check if the scheme will continue with its strategy.

* But if the scheme’s objective has changed—especially due to a merger with some other scheme—evaluate it. HDFC Gilt (government securities) Fund – short-term plan will now be merged with HDFC Corporate Bond Fund. Both schemes are different.

* New investors, beware. Past performance is set to become a bit hazier, especially for those schemes that have to alter their strategies, for the next three years. In this case, check who the fund manager is, and go by his track record.

* Debt funds are trickiest to navigate in this exercise. The good news is that they’ve become sharper and each of them now comes with a well-defined objective. Revamp your entire debt schemes portfolio.

Source: https://bit.ly/2HILziu

ATM :: Essentials Young Investors Must Know Before Investing in Mutual Funds via SIP

By SiliconIndia | Tuesday, May 1, 2018

ATM

A Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) is the best investment option for many investors – especially if you’re a young person, just beginning your investment journey. A SIP is a low-risk move, ideal for those who are in it for the long haul because else, the returns tend to be low. A steady investment of even Rs.500 per month has the potential to generate decent returns in the long run without putting a major dent in your pocket. But like all other investment options, it’s never wise to put in your money unless you’re well informed. Here are some things you must keep in mind when investing in Mutual Funds via SIPs.

– What exactly is a SIP?

A SIP lets you invest small amounts regularly in equities, debts and other kinds of mutual funds. It involves you buying units of any (or many) Mutual Funds of your choosing by investing a minimum of Rs. 500 per month. It is then up to you to redeem your units at any point in time. A SIP is ideal for younger investors since it practically guarantees good returns with a lower risk of capital loss. It bridges the gap between high-risk options like equities and low-risk options which may not produce returns.

– The Power of Compounding

There is a thumb rule talking about investments. The truth is that the longer you keep your money in a fund, the more money is likely to be generated over time. This is where young investors have an edge over older ones. If you’re 40 and want to begin investing in a retirement fund, you’re 18 years behind those who began at 22. The 22-year olds are likely to generate higher returnsprimarily because of the compounding effect. Start as early as possible.

– Be Informed

No investment option is completely risk-free and investing in the wrong fund may end up being a grave error. You can never be too careful with where to put your money. It’s always better to look at the past performance of any mutual fund you decide to put your money into. Of course, this is not possible if it’s a new mutual fund. Try to ensure that the mutual fund you pick has been around for a few years at the very least before investing your money. You don’t want to be risking letting it all go to waste, do you?

Your fundsare distributed into a set of pre-decided companies from numerous sectors. These companies are usually mentioned in the prospectus, and you’re free to check up on them. In the interest of staying informed, it is advisable to check out all the companies mentioned.After all, it’s your money that will help fund its future endeavors, and you have every right to know what it’s being used for. Read up on the companies, the industries and the sectors that your mutual fund is investing in, and analyze whether they are ones you’re comfortable with, or if they’re ones you’d like your money to be invested into.

– Your Own Goals

Don’t just start investing because it’s the “in” thing and everyone around you is doing it. If you really want to gain from your investment, align it with your goals. Whether that goal is to buy your dream car after 10 years or to generate enough capital to start your own business in 15 years, or even go to the vacation you always wanted – your end goal and the money it’ll require should be fixed in your mind as early as possible. Once that’s settled, you can go about looking at what exactly to invest in and how much to put into it every month. For example, if your goal is to buy a car costing ?30 lakhs in 15 years, you can’t invest in something that’ll give you any less than that at the given time.

– Market Risks

Mutual Funds Schemes can be considered low-risk and safe to the extent that they are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), and the fact that companies must have a minimum net worth to be eligible for mutual fund investments. However, fraud is a very real possibility and the less informed can easily be ensnared. Technicalities are everything here, so always read the terms and conditions thoroughly. Only pick a SEBI registered investment adviser.

– Choosing the Right Scheme

Mutual fund selection depends on the kind of an investor you as an individual, are. If your goals are long-term and you can handle risk, you could invest in equity schemes. If you’re more of a moderate investor with a lower of appetite for risk, you should consider investing in large cap or multi-cap mutual funds (that is, large companies or multiple companies) which tend to have lower exposure to risks. This is because such funds are channeled into companies which are comparatively stable. If you’re more aggressive and don’t mind the risk, invest in small cap or mid cap funds instead.

– Choosing the Right Bank and Date

This may not look very significant, but it’s actually pretty important. The general practice is for the plan to directly take money from your bank account monthly (or at whatever regular interval you have fixed). So, the date you fix should be keeping in mind that the account isn’t low on funds when the money is cut. Keep your balance at a minimum of at least the investment amount, and make sure you set the date of investment as one which is placed after you get your income (salary, rental income, etc.).

Be careful not to use an account that you hardly use otherwise, sincethere’s a higher chance of it running into issues of insufficient funds around the time your SIP debit is due.

Get Started Now

Once you’ve understood these essentials of mutual fund investments, it gets fairly easy to take a plunge as an investor and start crafting your investment goals. Get started now. The sooner you do, the more the returns! Remember the power of compounding?

Source: https://bit.ly/2jq1iEH

NTH :: China’s new behaviour monitoring system to ‘purify’ its 1.4 billion population

Aakanksha Mathur | 30 April, 2018 | MeriNews

NTH

China’s new “social credit scheme” which becomes mandatory for all citizens by 2020 is designed to involuntarily rate people based on their “commercial sincerity”, “social security”, “trust breaking” and “judicial credibility”.

But what does that imply for the 1.4 billion strong Chinese population? Well, almost 11 million Chinese are no longer allowed to fly and another 4 million are barred from taking a train owing to their low personal scores. Come next week, the programme will be implemented nationwide.

According to the Chinese government, its a system to “purify” society by rewarding trust-worthy people while at the same time punishing those who are not, says a report from CBS News.

Much unlike Credit Information Bureau of India Limited (CIBIL) score which we Indians are familiar with, this new Chinese social credit score system covers a much wider scope like whether you pay your taxes on time, follow traffic rules and even on what you post online. This means that trolling someone on Twitter could severely harm your score.

Liu Hui, a journalist by profession, was recently denied an air ticket because his name featured in the list of untrustworthy people. He was asked by a court to apologize for a series of tweets that he had made and later told that his apology had been rejected on the grounds of sincerity.

“I can’t buy property. My child can’t go to a private school. You feel you’re being controlled by the list all the time,” Liu was quoted by CBS News as saying.

While getting involved in community service and buying domestically manufactured products can increase your score, indulging in acts like fraud, tax evasion and smoking in public make it drop. A low social credit score translates into the fact that you are banned from let alone buying plain or trains tickets, even a high-speed internet connection.

What makes this social credit rating system work is China’s robust network of an estimated 176 million surveillance cameras which the country plans to increase to 600 million by 2020.

In fact, in several big cities of China like Shanghai, cameras are used for tracking and catching hold of jaywalkers. The cameras first record the offence and then the recording is played on the nearby video screen to publicly shame the offender.

However, the downside of this behaviour monitoring system is that is can be abused by the government, feels Ken DeWoskin, who has studied China’s economic and political culture for over three decades.

“Well, I think that the government and the people running the plan would like it to go as deeply as possible… to determine how to allocate benefits and also how to impact and shape their behaviour,” DeWoskin told CBS News.

Not minding the collateral damage, since you were born in a communist country, being rated “trustworthy” by the government does come with fringe benefits like lower bank interest rates, discounts on energy bills and also that China’s largest online dating site reportedly even boosts the profiles of people with good credit scores.

Source: https://bit.ly/2jq1iEH

NTH :: Should EPFO subscribers hike their ETF investments?

The whole theme of EPFO providing these choices to increase and reduce equity exposure is a case of duplication of effort and design. Financial experts are advising investors to leverage existing options.
Hiral Thanawala | May 02, 2018 11:28 AM IST | Source: Moneycontrol.com

NTH

There is good news for over five crore subscribers of retirement fund body EPFO. Soon they may have an option to increase or decrease investments of their provident fund into stocks through exchange-traded funds (ETFs) in the current fiscal. In its last meeting, the Central Board of Trustees decided to explore the possibility of granting an option to increase or reduce equity allocation to subscribers contributing through ETF above the 15% cap.

The Employee Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) had started investing in ETFs from investible deposits in August 2015. In FY16, it invested five percent of its investible deposits, which was subsequently increased to 10 percent in FY17 and 15 percent in FY18. However, subscribers were not at all pleased with this increase in exposure to equities. There were some who didn’t want to risk their retirement corpus built through the EPF route. While other subscribers were keen to increase exposure to equities for better returns in the long-term.

So, what advice do financial experts have for EPFO subscribers looking to increase their exposure to equities through the ETFs route when the option is opened up?

Who should increase or reduce investments in ETFs?
Several investors are not reasonably patient with their active investments and panic when they see volatility in the market. Chenthil Iyer, a Sebi registered investment adviser and author of ‘Everyone Has an Eye on Your Wallet! Do You?’ said these investors generally invest only in fixed deposits and post office schemes. “For such investors, increasing the equity exposure through EPF route may be a good option as it is a passive mode of investing and ensures a long-term commitment.”

For investors who manage their active investments and have a well-diversified portfolio, Iyer recommends a minimum equity exposure.

Arvind Laddha, Deputy CEO, JLT, Independent Insurance, has a word of caution. “In the past, there have been negative returns for consecutive two-to-three years or even more from equity markets and this could compromise the savings of EPFO subscribers which they are not used to.”

As not all investors understand the risk of equities and their volatile nature of returns, Kalpesh Mehta, Partner at Deloitte India, feels an investor should also consider one’s age, risk appetite, financial obligations and total net worth before increasing exposure to equities through ETFs.

Benefits of increasing investments in ETFs
Here are the benefits of increasing investments in ETFs through EPF contribution as explained by Amit Gopal, Senior Vice President, India Life Capital: 1) Regular monthly SIP because of mandatory contributions; 2) Inexpensive as employees (contributors) don’t have to pay fund management fees in the current model of EPF; and 3) Tax advantages on contributions. To this, Colonel Sanjeev Govila, CEO, Hum Fauji Initiatives lists institutional framework taking care of selection and research of equities while investing.

Drawbacks of increasing investments in ETFs
Gopal highlights drawbacks such as insufficient administrative track record, illiquidity associated with a retirement fund product, absence of choice in fund manager and products.

To this, Iyer cautions, “Putting the responsibility of equity exposure of this fund on the individual may expose it to the vagaries of the individual’s risk perception, leading to possible over-exposure.”

Make EPF more investor friendly
EPF needs to be investor friendly with additional facilities of enhancing and reducing equity allocation which is likely to be made available in the coming two-to-three months. Iyer feels periodic electronic statements should be mailed to the subscribers which clearly mentions the amount and number of units available in ETF.

“Further an automatic mode of distributing the contribution into equity and debt should be made available based on the age of the individual just like NPS.” This, he feels, will ensure minimum manual intervention in decision-making with regard to equity exposure.

According to Goyal, while EPFO have described some methods of passing on returns, nothing concrete has been implemented. “It is unclear how they will ford the system and governance challenges that could arise.”

It would therefore be good if these issues are resolved before increased allocation and employee choices are implemented. An investor needs to keep a track of this developments for their own benefit.

Leverage on existing options instead of duplicating efforts
The whole theme of EPFO providing these choices to increase and reduce equity exposure is a case of duplication of effort and design. Financial experts are advising investors to leverage existing options.

“The NPS already provides the same structure and benefit. Integrating it with the EPFO and permitting portability is a more efficient way of enhancing employee choice. NPS already has the architecture and track record of administering an employee choice model,” Gopal added.

Source: https://bit.ly/2IdyOMu

NTH :: Do not reject loan application based on CIBIL score, says HC

STAFF REPORTER | MADURAI | UPDATED: APRIL 22, 2018 04:14 IST | The Hindu

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Coming to the aid of a law student who sought an educational loan from a nationalised bank, the Madurai Bench of Madras High Court has directed the bank to consider the loan application and disburse the loan within two weeks.

Justice M.S. Ramesh, hearing the plea, observed that nationalised banks had time and again rejected loan applications based on the CIBIL reports of family members.

The student being the principal borrower, the status of parents and family members could not be a criteria for rejecting the application. CIBIL score should not be a ground for rejection of an application. It was a wilful disobedience of various orders passed by the court in this regard, making this case liable for contempt of court orders. The Head of Indian Bank, which had rejected the loan, was directed to issue necessary directions to all its branches in the State to refrain from rejecting educational loan applications on such grounds.

The court was hearing the case of M.Hariharasudhan, a law student of Prist University, Thanjavur, who had sought an educational loan of Rs. 70,000 from the Indian Bank. He moved the High Court after his application was rejected based on his father’s low CIBIL score.

Source: https://bit.ly/2Ht9X3D